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pact-jvm-consumer-groovy

Groovy DSL for Pact JVM

Dependency

The library is available on maven central using:

  • group-id = au.com.dius.pact.consumer
  • artifact-id = groovy
  • version-id = 4.1.0

Usage

Add the groovy library to your test class path. This provides a PactBuilder class for you to use to define your pacts. For a full example, have a look at the example JUnit ExampleGroovyConsumerPactTest.

If you are using gradle for your build, add it to your build.gradle:

dependencies {
testCompile 'au.com.dius.pact.consumer:groovy:4.1.0'
}

In order to avoid the name collision between au.com.dius.pact.consumer:groovy and Groovy Gradle plugin's automatic configuraiton of groovyClasspath add the following configuration to your build.gradle:

compileTestGroovy {
groovyClasspath = configurations.testCompileClasspath
}

Then create an instance of the PactBuilder in your test.

    import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.PactVerificationResult
import au.com.dius.pact.consumer.groovy.PactBuilder
import groovyx.net.http.RESTClient
import org.junit.Test

class AliceServiceConsumerPactTest {

@Test
void "A service consumer side of a pact goes a little something like this"() {

def alice_service = new PactBuilder() // Create a new PactBuilder
alice_service {
serviceConsumer "Consumer" // Define the service consumer by name
hasPactWith "Alice Service" // Define the service provider that it has a pact with
port 1234 // The port number for the service. It is optional, leave it out to
// to use a random one

given('there is some good mallory') // defines a provider state. It is optional.
uponReceiving('a retrieve Mallory request') // upon_receiving starts a new interaction
withAttributes(method: 'get', path: '/mallory') // define the request, a GET request to '/mallory'
willRespondWith( // define the response we want returned
status: 200,
headers: ['Content-Type': 'text/html'],
body: '"That is some good Mallory."'
)
}

// Execute the run method to have the mock server run.
// It takes a closure to execute your requests and returns a PactVerificationResult.
PactVerificationResult result = alice_service.runTest {
def client = new RESTClient('http://localhost:1234/')
def alice_response = client.get(path: '/mallory')

assert alice_response.status == 200
assert alice_response.contentType == 'text/html'

def data = alice_response.data.text()
assert data == '"That is some good Mallory."'
}
assert result == PactVerificationResult.Ok.INSTANCE // This means it is all good

}
}

After running this test, the following pact file is produced:

{
"provider" : {
"name" : "Alice Service"
},
"consumer" : {
"name" : "Consumer"
},
"interactions" : [ {
"provider_state" : "there is some good mallory",
"description" : "a retrieve Mallory request",
"request" : {
"method" : "get",
"path" : "/mallory",
"requestMatchers" : { }
},
"response" : {
"status" : 200,
"headers" : {
"Content-Type" : "text/html"
},
"body" : "That is some good Mallory.",
"responseMatchers" : { }
}
} ]
}

DSL Methods

serviceConsumer(String consumer)

This names the service consumer for the pact.

hasPactWith(String provider)

This names the service provider for the pact.

port(int port)

Sets the port that the mock server will run on. If not supplied, a random port will be used.

given(String providerState)

Defines a state that the provider needs to be in for the request to succeed. For more info, see https://github.com/realestate-com-au/pact/wiki/Provider-states. Can be called multiple times.

given(String providerState, Map params)

Defines a state that the provider needs to be in for the request to succeed. For more info, see https://github.com/realestate-com-au/pact/wiki/Provider-states. Can be called multiple times, and the params map can contain the data required for the state.

uponReceiving(String requestDescription)

Starts the definition of a of a pact interaction.

withAttributes(Map requestData)

Defines the request for the interaction. The request data map can contain the following:

keyDescriptionDefault Value
methodThe HTTP method to useget
pathThe Path for the request/
queryQuery parameters as a Map<String, List>
headersMap of key-value pairs for the request headers
bodyThe body of the request. If it is not a string, it will be converted to JSON. Also accepts a PactBodyBuilder.
prettyPrintBoolean value to control if the body is pretty printed. See note on Pretty Printed Bodies below

For the path, header attributes and query parameters (version 2.2.2+ for headers, 3.3.7+ for query parameters), you can use regular expressions to match. You can either provide a regex Pattern class or use the regexp method to construct a RegexpMatcher (you can use any of the defined matcher methods, see DSL methods below). If you use a Pattern, or the regexp method but don't provide a value, a random one will be generated from the regular expression. This value is used when generating requests.

For example:

    .withAttributes(path: ~'/transaction/[0-9]+') // This will generate a random path for requests

// or

.withAttributes(path: regexp('/transaction/[0-9]+', '/transaction/1234567890'))

withBody(Closure closure)

Constructs the body of the request or response by invoking the supplied closure in the context of a PactBodyBuilder.

Pretty Printed Bodies

An optional Map can be supplied to control how the body is generated. The option values are available:

OptionDescription
mimeTypeThe mime type of the body. Defaults to application/json
prettyPrintBoolean value controlling whether to pretty-print the body or not. Defaults to true

If the prettyPrint option is not specified, the bodies will be pretty printed unless the mime type corresponds to one that requires compact bodies. Currently only application/x-thrift+json is classed as requiring a compact body.

For an example of turning off pretty printing:

service {
uponReceiving('a request')
withAttributes(method: 'get', path: '/')
withBody(prettyPrint: false) {
name 'harry'
surname 'larry'
}
}

willRespondWith(Map responseData)

Defines the response for the interaction. The response data map can contain the following:

keyDescriptionDefault Value
statusThe HTTP status code to return200
headersMap of key-value pairs for the response headers
bodyThe body of the response. If it is not a string, it will be converted to JSON. Also accepts a PactBodyBuilder.
prettyPrintBoolean value to control if the body is pretty printed. See note on Pretty Printed Bodies above

For the headers (version 2.2.2+), you can use regular expressions to match. You can either provide a regex Pattern class or use the regexp method to construct a RegexpMatcher (you can use any of the defined matcher methods, see DSL methods below). If you use a Pattern, or the regexp method but don't provide a value, a random one will be generated from the regular expression. This value is used when generating responses.

For example:

    .willRespondWith(headers: [LOCATION: ~'/transaction/[0-9]+']) // This will generate a random location value

// or

.willRespondWith(headers: [LOCATION: regexp('/transaction/[0-9]+', '/transaction/1234567890')])

PactVerificationResult runTest(Closure closure)

The runTest method starts the mock server, and then executes the provided closure. It then returns the pact verification result for the pact run. If you require access to the mock server configuration for the URL, it is passed into the closure, e.g.,


PactVerificationResult result = alice_service.runTest() { mockServer ->
def client = new RESTClient(mockServer.url)
def alice_response = client.get(path: '/mallory')
}

Note on HTTP clients and persistent connections

Some HTTP clients may keep the connection open, based on the live connections settings or if they use a connection cache. This could cause your tests to fail if the client you are testing lives longer than an individual test, as the mock server will be started and shutdown for each test. This will result in the HTTP client connection cache having invalid connections. For an example of this where the there was a failure for every second test, see Issue #342.

Body DSL

For building JSON bodies there is a PactBodyBuilder that provides as DSL that includes matching with regular expressions and by types. For a more complete example look at PactBodyBuilderTest.

For an example:

service {
uponReceiving('a request')
withAttributes(method: 'get', path: '/')
withBody {
name(~/\w+/, 'harry')
surname regexp(~/\w+/, 'larry')
position regexp(~/staff|contractor/, 'staff')
happy(true)
}
}

This will return the following body:

{
"name": "harry",
"surname": "larry",
"position": "staff",
"happy": true
}

and add the following matchers:

{
"$.body.name": {"regex": "\\w+"},
"$.body.surname": {"regex": "\\w+"},
"$.body.position": {"regex": "staff|contractor"}
}

DSL Methods

The DSL supports the following matching methods:

  • regexp(Pattern re, String value = null), regexp(String regexp, String value = null)

Defines a regular expression matcher. If the value is not provided, a random one will be generated.

  • hexValue(String value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts hexidecimal values. If the value is not provided, a random hexidcimal value will be generated.

  • identifier(def value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts integer values. If the value is not provided, a random value will be generated.

  • ipAddress(String value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts IP addresses. If the value is not provided, a 127.0.0.1 will be used.

  • numeric(Number value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts any numerical values. If the value is not provided, a random integer will be used.

  • integer(def value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts any integer values. If the value is not provided, a random integer will be used.

  • decimal(def value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts any decimal numbers. If the value is not provided, a random decimal will be used.

  • timestamp(String pattern = null, def value = null)

If pattern is not provided the ISO_DATETIME_FORMAT is used ("yyyy-MM-dd'T'HH:mm:ss") . If the value is not provided, the current date and time is used.

  • time(String pattern = null, def value = null)

If pattern is not provided the ISO_TIME_FORMAT is used ("'T'HH:mm:ss") . If the value is not provided, the current date and time is used.

  • date(String pattern = null, def value = null)

If pattern is not provided the ISO_DATE_FORMAT is used ("yyyy-MM-dd") . If the value is not provided, the current date and time is used.

  • uuid(String value = null)

Defines a matcher that accepts UUIDs. A random one will be generated if no value is provided.

  • equalTo(def value)

Defines an equality matcher that always matches the provided value using equals. This is useful for resetting cascading type matchers.

  • includesStr(def value)

Defines a matcher that accepts any value where its string form includes the provided string.

  • nullValue()

Defines a matcher that accepts only null values.

  • url(String basePath, Object... pathFragments)

Defines a matcher for URLs, given the base URL path and a sequence of path fragments. The path fragments could be strings or regular expression matchers. For example:

  url('http://localhost:8080', 'pacticipants', regexp('[^\\/]+', 'Activity%20Service'))

Defines a matcher that accepts only null values.

What if a field matches a matcher name in the DSL?

When using the body DSL, if there is a field that matches a matcher name (e.g. a field named 'date') then you can do the following:

  withBody {
date = date()
}

Ensuring all items in a list match an example

Lots of the time you might not know the number of items that will be in a list, but you want to ensure that the list has a minimum or maximum size and that each item in the list matches a given example. You can do this with the eachLike, minLike and maxLike functions.

functiondescription
eachLike()Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example
maxLike(integer max)Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no bigger than the provided max
minLike(integer min)Ensure that each item in the list matches the provided example and the list is no smaller than the provided min

For example:

    withBody {
users minLike(1) {
id identifier
name string('Fred')
}
}

This will ensure that the user list is never empty and that each user has an identifier that is a number and a name that is a string.

You can specify the number of example items to generate in the array. The default is 1.

    withBody {
users minLike(1, 3) {
id identifier
name string('Fred')
}
}

This will create an example user list with 3 users.

The "each like" matchers have been updated to work with primitive types.

withBody {
permissions eachLike(3, 'GRANT')
}

will generate the following JSON

{
"permissions": ["GRANT", "GRANT", "GRANT"]
}

and matchers

{
"$.body.permissions": {"match": "type"}
}

and now you can even get more fancy

withBody {
permissions eachLike(3, regexp(~/\w+/))
permissions2 minLike(2, 3, integer())
permissions3 maxLike(4, 3, ~/\d+/)
}

You can also match arrays at the root level, for instance,

withBody PactBodyBuilder.eachLike(regexp(~/\w+/))

or if you have arrays of arrays

withBody PactBodyBuilder.eachLike([ regexp('[0-9a-f]{8}', 'e8cda07e'), regexp(~/\w+/, 'sony') ])

An eachArrayLike method has been added to handle matching of arrays of arrays.

{
answers minLike(1) {
questionId string("books")
answer eachArrayLike {
questionId string("title")
answer string("BBBB")
}
}

This will generate an array of arrays for the answer attribute.

Array contains matcher (V4 specification)

The array contains matcher functions allow you to match the actual list against a list of required variants. These work by matching each item against the variants, and the matching succeeds if each variant matches at least one item. Order of items in the list is not important.

The variants can have a totally different structure, and can have their own matching rules to apply. For an example of how these can be used to match a hypermedia format like Siren, see Example Pact + Siren project.

actions arrayContaining([
{
name 'update'
method 'PUT'
href url('http://localhost:9000', 'orders', regexp('\\d+', '1234'))
},
{
name 'delete'
method 'DELETE'
href url('http://localhost:9000', 'orders', regexp('\\d+', '1234'))
}
])

Matching any key in a map

The DSL has been extended for cases where the keys in a map are IDs. For an example of this, see #313. In this case you can use the keyLike method, which takes an example key as a parameter.

For example:

withBody {
example {
one {
keyLike '001', 'value' // key like an id mapped to a value
}
two {
keyLike 'ABC001', regexp('\\w+') // key like an id mapped to a matcher
}
three {
keyLike 'XYZ001', { // key like an id mapped to a closure
id identifier()
}
}
four {
keyLike '001XYZ', eachLike { // key like an id mapped to an array where each item is matched by the following
id identifier() // example
}
}
}
}

For an example, have a look at WildcardPactSpec.

Matching with an OR

The V3 spec allows multiple matchers to be combined using either AND or OR for a value. The main use of this would be to either be able to match a value or a null, or to combine different matchers.

For example:

    withBody {
valueA and('AB', includeStr('A'), includeStr('B')) // valueA must include both A and B
valueB or('100', regex(~/\d+/), nullValue()) // valueB must either match a regular expression or be null
valueC or('12345678', regex(~/\d{8}/), regex(~/X\d{13}/)) // valueC must match either 8 or X followed by 13 digits
}

Overriding the handling of a body data type

NOTE: version 4.1.3+

By default, bodies will be handled based on their content types. For binary contents, the bodies will be base64 encoded when written to the Pact file and then decoded again when the file is loaded. You can change this with an override property: pact.content_type.override.<TYPE>.<SUBTYPE>=text|json|binary. For instance, setting pact.content_type.override.application.pdf=text will treat PDF bodies as a text type and not encode/decode them.

Changing the directory pact files are written to

By default, pact files are written to target/pacts (or build/pacts if you use Gradle), but this can be overwritten with the pact.rootDir system property. This property needs to be set on the test JVM as most build tools will fork a new JVM to run the tests.

For Gradle, add this to your build.gradle:

test {
systemProperties['pact.rootDir'] = "$buildDir/custom-pacts-directory"
}

Forcing pact files to be overwritten (3.6.5+)

By default, when the pact file is written, it will be merged with any existing pact file. To force the file to be overwritten, set the Java system property pact.writer.overwrite to true.

Publishing your pact files to a pact broker

If you use Gradle, you can use the pact Gradle plugin to publish your pact files.

Pact Specification V3

Version 3 of the pact specification changes the format of pact files in the following ways:

  • Query parameters are stored in a map form and are un-encoded (see #66 and #97 for information on what this can cause).
  • Introduces a new message pact format for testing interactions via a message queue.
  • Multiple provider states can be defined with data parameters.

Generating V3 spec pact files

To have your consumer tests generate V3 format pacts, you can pass an option into the runTest method. For example:

PactVerificationResult result = service.runTest(specificationVersion: PactSpecVersion.V3) { config ->
def client = new RESTClient(config.url)
def response = client.get(path: '/')
}

Consumer test for a message consumer

For testing a consumer of messages from a message queue, the PactMessageBuilder class provides a DSL for defining your message expectations. It works in much the same way as the PactBuilder class for Request-Response interactions, but will generate a V3 format message pact file.

The following steps demonstrate how to use it.

Step 1 - define the message expectations

Create a test that uses the PactMessageBuilder to define a message expectation, and then call run. This will invoke the given closure with a message for each one defined in the pact.

def eventStream = new PactMessageBuilder().call {
serviceConsumer 'messageConsumer'
hasPactWith 'messageProducer'

given 'order with id 10000004 exists'

expectsToReceive 'an order confirmation message'
withMetaData(type: 'OrderConfirmed') // Can define any key-value pairs here
withContent(contentType: 'application/json') {
type 'OrderConfirmed'
audit {
userCode 'messageService'
}
origin 'message-service'
referenceId '10000004-2'
timeSent: '2015-07-22T10:14:28+00:00'
value {
orderId '10000004'
value '10.000000'
fee '10.00'
gst '15.00'
}
}
}

Step 2 - call your message handler with the generated messages

This example tests a message handler that gets messages from a Kafka topic. In this case the Pact message is wrapped as a Kafka MessageAndMetadata.

eventStream.run { Message message ->
messageHandler.handleMessage(new MessageAndMetadata('topic', 1,
new kafka.message.Message(message.contentsAsBytes()), 0, null, valueDecoder))
}

Step 3 - validate that the message was handled correctly

We have invoked the message handling code with a message from the Pact file, but we need to do a light-weight check that everything worked ok. In this example, we have recieved a "order confirmation message". The handler was meant to have processed the message and set the status of the corresponding order to "confirmed", so let's check that.

def order = orderRepository.getOrder('10000004')
assert order.status == 'confirmed'
assert order.value == 10.0

Step 4 - Publish the pact file

If the test was successful, a pact file would have been produced with the message from step 1.

Having values injected from provider state callbacks (3.6.11+)

You can have values from the provider state callbacks be injected into most places (paths, query parameters, headers, bodies, etc.). This works by using the V3 spec generators with provider state callbacks that return values. One example of where this would be useful is API calls that require an ID which would be auto-generated by the database on the provider side, so there is no way to know what the ID would be beforehand.

The DSL method fromProviderState allows you to set an expression that will be parsed with the values returned from the provider states. For the body, you can use the key value instead of an expression.

For example, assume that an API call is made to get the details of a user by ID. A provider state can be defined that specifies that the user must be exist, but the ID will be created when the user is created. So we can then define an expression for the path where the ID will be replaced with the value returned from the provider state callback.

service {
given('User harry exists')
uponReceiving('a request for user harry')
withAttributes(method: 'get', path: fromProviderState('/api/user/${id}', '/api/user/100'))
withBody {
name(fromProviderState('userName', 'harry')) // looks up the value using the userName key
}
}

Overriding the expression markers ${ and } (4.1.25+)

You can change the markers of the expressions using the following system properties:

  • pact.expressions.start (default is ${)
  • pact.expressions.end (default is })

Test Analytics

We are tracking anonymous analytics to gather important usage statistics like JVM version and operating system. To disable tracking, set the 'pact_do_not_track' system property or environment variable to 'true'.